Modern Edinburgh

 Called the "Athens of the North," Edinburgh has been the capitol of Scotland since the early Middle Ages, and was one of the major centers of education and philosophical advancement during the Enlightment. Since then, Edingurgh has continued to grow outward from its historic center, which is anchored by both the Univeristy of Edinburgh as well as by Edinburgh Castle, which is shown in the picture and once housed the throne of the Kings of Scotland prior to the "Union of the Crowns" in 1603.